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HomeCell Regeneration and ATP Production  
Cell Regeneration and ATP Production

Cell Regeneration and ATP Production

The Effects of Electric Currents on ATP Generation, Protein Synthesis, and Membrane Transport

Summary: Research shows that ATP (adenosine triphosphate) levels increase with the application of microcurrent and diminish with millicurrent (Cheng 1982). The increase of ATP peaked at 500 microamps and decreased rapidly at higher current levels. Cheng also observed that aminoisobutyric acid uptake increased dramatically beginning at 10 microamps and inhibitory effects began at 750 microamps. The uptake of aminoisobutyric acid which is essential for protein synthesis and membrane transport, showed an increase of 30 - 40%.

Mechanism

During electro stimulation, proton gradients are created across the mitochondrial membrane. The current produces a gradient when electrons at the cathode react with water to form hydroxyl ions while producing protons at the anodic side. As a result a proton and voltage gradient are established across the intervening tissues between the electrodes. The influence of the electrical field and the proton concentration difference produce a proton current that moves from anode to cathode. As the migrating protons cross the mitochondrial membrane-bound H+ATPase, ATP is formed. The increased ATP production stimulates amino acid transport, and these two factors both contribute to increased protein synthesis.

(Cheng, 1982)

How does it work?   Microcurrent is a physiological electric modality that increases ATP (energy) production in the cells of your body. This dramatically increases the tissue's healing rate. The immediate response to the correct microcurrent frequency suggests that other mechanisms are involved as well. The exact effects or changes that result from microcurrent frequencies have not been proven because no biopsies have been done after microcurrent has been applied.  Nevertheless the changes in the tissue are unmistakable; scars will often suddenly soften; trigger points often become less painful; swelling often drains within minutes when the “correct” frequency is applied.  In many situations the changes seen seem to be long lasting and in many cases permanent.

 ATP, or Adenosine Triphosphate, is the universal energy currency for all living things. Every cell in the world uses ATP for energy. It consists of a base (adenine) and three phosphate groups. It can be made many different ways, but mainly it is made by cellular respiration.

Research has shown that pulsed electronic stimulation at specific frequencies and very subtle intensity levels (less than 400ua) has the ability to increase the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the main energy fuel essential for cellular regeneration and healing. Higher stimulation intensities such as those required to cause muscle contraction and temporary pain blocking with conventional TENS Units actually decrease ATP production.

 “Microcurrent increases the production of ATP, your own chemical energy, by up to 500%.  It also increases protein synthesis and waste product removal.”  -Cheng, 1987

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Additional Research

 Berridge, M. The molecular basis of communication within the cell. Sci. Am. 253:142-150; 1985.
Cheng, N., The effects of electric currents on ATP Generation, Protein Synthesis, and membrane transport in rat skin. Orth Surg. 1982
Gensler. W.: Bioelectric potentials and their relation to growth in higher plants. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Scl. 238:280. 1974.
Harrington, D. B.. and Becker. R. O.: Electrical stimulation of RNA and protein synthesis in the frog erylhrocyte. Exp. Cell Res. 76:95. 1973.
Heffernan, M. (1996). Comparative effects of microcurrent stimulation on EEG spectrum and correlation dimension. Integrative Physiology and Behavioral Science. 31 (3):202-209.
Heffernan, M. (1996b). Measurement of electromagnetic fields in the healing response. Epress, pp 1-6.
Luben, R.A. (1991). Effects of low-energy electromagnetic fields (pulsed and dc) on membrane signal transduction processes in biological systems. Health Physics. 61(1): 15-28.
McClanahan, B. J.; Phillips, R. D. The influence of electric field exposure on bone growth and fracture repair in rats. Bioelec-tromagnetics 4:11-19; 1983.
Pilla, A. A. Electrochemical information transfer at cell surfaces and junctions--application to the study and manipulation of cell regulation. In: Keyzer, H.; Gutman, F. Bioelectro-chemistry. New York: Plenum Publishing; 1980:353-396.
Schmukler, R.; Pilla, A. A. A transient impedance approach to nonfaradaic electrochemical kinetics at living cell membranes. J. Electrochem. Soc. 129:526-528; 1982.
Shamos. M. H., and Layinc. L. S.: Piezoelectricity as a fundamental property of biological tissues. Nature 213:267, 1967.
Witt. H. T.. Schlodder, E., and Graber. P.: Membrane-bound ATP synthesis generated by an external electrical field. FEBS Left. 69:272, 1976.

 

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